1.5 War Against the Indigenous Americans – The Fight for Land

In this section we will go over the unjust way of Europeans in the Americas as it pertains to the Indigenous American people. This is evidence this this was always the intentions of the foreigners was to to take the land from the original inhabits . Weather its be by was or paper geocide which is still goin on to this very day. The lingering effects of the Anglo-Saxon Club of America and Marcus Garvey Pan African movement. Which was created to CONVINCE the original first nations . Who skin was of dark hue as we read in section 1.2 . This has greatly injured the American indigenous community with miseducation and strategic oppression. The keep the American Indian under the impression they need the United States corporation to sustain. Without our agreement to contract with them and enroll in their Federal constructive trust, It will cause for their jurisdictions to shrink and will also hurt them economically. We have solutions for these unlawful trespasses amongst our ancestors and ourselves which will be explained in the Private NFT section of the class      

Walter Ashby Plecker (April 2, 1861 – August 2, 1947) was an American physician and public health advocate who was the first registrar of Virginia‘s Bureau of Vital Statistics, serving from 1912 to 1946. He was a leader of the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, a white supremacist organization founded in Richmond, Virginia, in 1922. He drafted and lobbied for the passage of the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 by the Virginia legislature; it institutionalized the one-drop rule

In 1924, the Virginia General Assembly enacted the Racial Integrity Act.[1] The act reinforced racial segregation by prohibiting interracial marriage and classifying as “white” a person “who has no trace whatsoever of any blood other than Caucasian.”[2] The act, an outgrowth of eugenist and scientific racist propaganda, was pushed by Walter Plecker, a white supremacist and eugenist who held the post of registrar of Virginia Bureau of Vital Statistics.[3]

The Racial Integrity Act required that all birth certificates and marriage certificates in Virginia to include the person’s race as either “white” or “colored.” The Act reclassified who could be considered an Indian “[2] The act was part of a series of “racial integrity laws” enacted in Virginia to reinforce racial hierarchies and prohibit the mixing of races; other statutes included the Public Assemblages Act of 1926 (which required the racial segregation of all public meeting areas) and a 1930 act that defined any person with even a trace of African ancestry as black (thus codifying the so-called “one-drop rule“).[2]

In 1967, both the Racial Integrity Act and the Virginia Sterilization Act of 1924 were officially overturned by the United States Supreme Court in their ruling Loving v. Virginia. In 2001, the Virginia General Assembly passed a resolution that condemned the Racial Integrity Act for its “use as a respectable, ‘scientific’ veneer to cover the activities of those who held blatantly racist views.”[2]

In particular, Plecker resented African Americans who passed as Native Americans, and he came to firmly believe that the state’s Native Americans had been “mongrelized” with its African American population. In fact, since shortly after the Civil War, Native Americans from all over the country had been brought to the Hampton area to be educated with blacks, and some of them had also married blacks, although Hampton’s Indian schools had closed down as racial discrimination against Native Americans and the eugenics movement both grew in the state. Plecker refused to recognize the fact that many mixed-race Virginia Indians had maintained their culture and identity as Native Americans over the centuries despite economic assimilation.[8] Plecker ordered state agencies to reclassify most citizens who claimed American Indian identity as “colored”, although many Virginian Native Americans continued to live in their communities and maintained their tribal practices. Church records, for instance, continued to identify them as Native Americans. Specifically, Plecker ordered state agencies to reclassify certain families whom he identified by surname, because he decided that they were trying to pass and evade segregation. This remained legal in the South until federal legislation overturned it in the 1960s.[8]

In addition, Plecker lobbied the US Census Bureau to drop the category “mulatto” in the 1930 and later censuses. This deprived mixed-race people of recognition of their identity and it also contributed to a binary culture of hypodescent, in which mixed-race persons were often classified as part of the group with lower social status.[5] Not until the 21st century did the federal census allow individuals to indicate more than one race or ethnic group in self-identification.

 

The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, (43 Stat. 253, enacted June 2, 1924) was an Act of the United States Congress that granted US citizenship to the indigenous peoples of the United States, called “Indians” in the Act. While the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution defines as citizens any persons born in the United States and subject to its jurisdiction, the amendment had previously been interpreted by the courts to not apply to Native peoples.

The Citizenship act of 1924 The act was proposed by Representative Homer Peter Snyder (December 6, 1863 – December 30, 1937 was an American politician and businessman from New York. He became known for his advocacy on behalf of Native Americans, chairing the Committee on Indian Affairs and introducing the Indian Citizenship Act in 1924. (R) of New York, and signed into law by President Calvin Coolidge on June 2, 1924. It was enacted partially in recognition of the thousands of Native Americans who served in the armed forces during the First World War

 

Under Article One of the United States Constitution, “Indians not taxed” were not counted in the population of a state for purposes of apportionment. Indigenous tribes were largely considered to be separate nations, with citizenship and treaty rights, so their people were not considered to be citizens of the United States.

The earliest recorded date of Native people becoming US citizens was in 1831 when the Mississippi Choctaw became citizens after the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek of 1830 was ratified. Under article XIV of that treaty, any Choctaw who elected not to move to Native American Territory could become an American citizen when he registered and if he stayed on designated lands for five years after treaty ratification.

The US Supreme Court in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) said that Native people could become citizens, though their acquisition of citizenship was by way of naturalization (ie., not by birth within US territory):[1]

They [the Indian tribes] may without doubt, like the subjects of any foreign government, be naturalized by the authority of Congress and become citizens of a state and of the United States, and if an individual should leave his nation or tribe, and take up his abode among the white population, he would be entitled to all the rights and privileges which would belong to an emigrant from any other foreign people.[2][3]

After the American Civil War, the Civil Rights Act of 1866 (ratified in 1870, after the 14th Amendment came into effect) repeated the exclusion, declaring:[4]

all persons born in the United States, and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed, are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States.

The Implications & Ramifications of the Artificial Black Identity A Legal Chronology of the Americas 1492-1968 (Concise & Definitive 2nd Edition)  Pages 45-49

 

 

INDIAN RELATIONS OF THE CONDUCT OF THE EUROPEANS TOWARDS THEM
Long and dismal, says the reverend author whose work I have so often alluded to, are
the complaints which the Indians make of European ingratitude and injustice. They love
to repeat them, and always do it with the eloquence of nature, aided by an energetic
and comprehensive language, which our polished idioms cannot imitate. Often I have
listened to these descriptions of their hard sufferings, until I felt ashamed of being a
white man.
They are, in general, very minute in these recitals, and proceed with a great degree of
order and regularity. They begin with the “Virginians, whom they call the long knives,
and who were the first European settlers in this part of the American continent.” It “was
we,” say the Lenape, Mohicans, and their kindred tribes, ‘who so kindly received them
on their first arrival into our country. We took them by the hand, and bid them welcome
to sit down by our side, and live with us as brothers; but how did they requite our
kindness? They at first asked only for a little land on which to raise bread for themselves
and their families, and pasture for their cattle, which we freely gave them. They soon
wanted more, which we also gave them. They saw *’ the game in the woods, which the
Great Spirit had ” given us for our subsistence, and they wanted that ” too. They
penetrated into the woods, in quest of ” game, they discovered spots of land which
pleased ” them; that land they also wanted, and because we ” were loth to part with it,
as we saw they had already more than they had need of, they took it ” from us by force
and drove us to a great distance ” from our ancient homes.
”By and by the Dutchemaan arrived at Manahachtanienk (Manhattan), (here they relate
with all its details what has been said in the preceding chapter.) “The great man wanted
only a little, little land, on which to raise greens for his soup, just as much as a bullock’s
hide would cover. Here we first might have observed their deceitful spirit. The bullock’s
hide “was cut up into little strips, and did not cover, indeed, but encircled a very large
piece of land, which we foolishly granted to them. They were, to raise greens on it,
instead of which they planted great guns; afterwards they built strong houses, “made
themselves masters of the island, then went ” up the river to our enemies, the Mengwe,
made a league with them, persuaded us by their wicked arts to lay down our arms, and
at last drove us entirely out of the country.
When the Yengeese (Yankees) arrived at Machtitchwanne, they looked about every
where for good spots of land, and when they found one they immediately and without
ceremony possessed themselves of it we were astonished, but still we let them go on,
not thinking it worth while to contend for a little land. But when at last they came to our
favorite spots, those which lay most convenient to our fisheries, then bloody wars
ensued: we would have been contented that the white people and we should have lived
quietly beside each other; but these white men encroached so fast upon us, that we
saw at once we should lose all, if we did not resist them. The wars that we carried on
against each other were long and cruel. We were enraged when we saw the white
people put our friends and relatives whom they had taken prisoners on board of

their ships, and carry them off to sea, whether to drown or sell them as slaves, in
the country from which they came, we knew not, but certain it is that none of
them have ever returned or even been heard of. At last they got possession of the
whole of the country which the Great Spirit had given us. One of our tribes was forced to
wander far beyond Quebec; others dispersed in small bodies, and sought places of
refuge where they could; some came to Pennsylvania; others went far to the west-ward
and mingled with other tribes.
To many of those, Pennsylvania was a last, delightful asylum. But here, again, the
Europeans disturbed them, and forced them to emigrate, although they had been most
kindly and hospitably received. On which ever side of the Lenapeicihittuck, the white
people landed, they were welcomed as brothers by our ancestors, who gave them lands
to live on, and even hunted for them, and furnished them with meat out of the woods.
Such was our conduct to the white men who inhabited this country, until our elder
brother, the great and good MiQuon, came and brought us words of peace and good
will. We believed his words, and his memory is still held in veneration among us.
But it was not long before our joy was turned into sorrow: our brother Miquon died, and
those of his good counsellors who were of his mind, and knew what had passed
between him and our ancestors, were no longer listened to; the strangers who had
taken their places, no longer spoke to us of sitting down by the side of each other as
brothers of one family; they forgot that friendship which their great man had established
with us, and was to last to the end of time; they now only strove to get all our land from
us by fraud or by force.
“We and our kindred tribes,” say they, “lived in peace and harmony with each other,
before the white people came into this country; our council house; extended far to the
north and far to the south. In the middle of it we would meet from all parts to smoke the
pipe of peace together. When the white men arrived in the south, we received them as
friends; we did the same when they arrived in the east. It was we, it was our forefathers,
who made them welcome, and let them sit down by our side. The land they settled on
was ours. We knew not but the Great Spirit had sent them to us for some good purpose,
and therefore we thought they must be a good people. We were mistaken; for no sooner
had they obtained a footing on our lands, than they began to pull our council house
down (Pulling the council house down. Destroying, dispersing the community,
preventing their further intercourse with each other, by settling between them on
their land.) first at one end and then at the other, and at last meeting each other at the
centre, where the council fire was yet burning bright, they put it out, (Putting the fire
out. Murdering them or their people, where they assemble for specific purposes,
where treaties are held.) and extinguished it with our own blood (Our own blood. The
blood flowing- from the veins of some of our community.) with the blood of those
who with us had received them who had welcomed them in our land! Their blood “ran in
streams into our fire, and extinguished it so entirely, that not one spark was left us
where- by to kindle a new fire; we were compelled to withdraw ourselves beyond the
great swamp, and to fly to our good uncle the Delamattenos who kindly gave us a tract
of land to live on. How long we shall be permitted to remain in this asylum, the Great

Spirit only knows. The whites will not rest contented until they shall have
destroyed the last of us, and made us disappear entirely from the face of the
earth.”
Alluding- to the murder of the Conestogo Indians, who though of another tribe, yet had
joined them in welcoming- the white people to their shores. In a narrative of this
lamentable event, supposed to have been written by the late Dr. Franklin, it is said: “On
the first arrival of the English in “Pennsylvania, messengers from this tribe came to
welcome them with presents of venison, corn and skins, and the whole tribe entered
into a treaty of friendship with the first proprietor, William Penn, which was to last as
long- as the sun should shine, or the waters run in the rivers.”
The fire was entirely extinguished by the blood of the murdered running into it; not a
spark was left to kindle a newfire. This alludes to the last fire that was kindled by the
Pennsylvania government and themselves at Lancaster, where the last treaty was held
with them in 1762, the year preceding this murder, which put an end to all business of
the kind in the province of Pennsylvania.
I have given here only a brief specimen of the charges which they exhibit against the
white people. There are men among them who have by heart the whole history of what
took place between the whites and the Indians, since the former first came into their
country; and relate the whole with ease and with an eloquence not to be imitated. On
the tablets of their memories they preserve this record for posterity. I, at one time, in
April 1787, was astonished when I heard one of their orators, a great chief of the
Delaware nation, go over this ground, recapitulating the most extraordinary events
which had before happened, and concluding in these words
“I admit there are good white men, but they bear no proportion to the bad; the bad must
be the strongest, for they rule. They do what they please. They enslave those who are
not of their colour, although created by the same Great Spirit who created us. They
would make slaves of us if they could, but as they cannot do it, they kill us! There is no
faith to be placed in their words. They are not like the Indians, who are only enemies
while at war, and are friends in peace. They will say to an Indian, ‘My friend! my
brother!’ They will take him by the hand, and at the same moment destroy him. And so
you” (addressing himself to the Christian Indians) will also be treated by them before
long. Remember! that this day I have warned you to beware of such friends as these.
I know the long knives; they are not to be trusted.”
Eleven months after this speech was delivered by this prophetic chief, ninety-six of the
same Christian Indians, about sixty of them women and children, were murdered at the
place where these very words had been spoken, by the same men he had alluded
to, and in the same manner that he had described.

CRUEL CONDUCT EXERCISED TOWARDS THE INDIANS

The fact is, the Indians are esteemed lawful prey. Such is the feeling of thousands of
men called christians, who boast of civilization, but who derive their subsistence by
intercourse with the Indians; and however just many in the United States are, and
however careful the British government is to guard the rights of the red men, yet as this
guardianship is chiefly committed to those who are partakers in the spoils of the Indians,
the care, instead of being wise and benign, is rather to debauch their untutored minds
by the introduction of spirits among them. Every cup to them is indeed “unblessed, and
the ingredient is a devil!” Gradually, therefore, are they diminishing, and receding from
the haunts of what we term civilization! That this charge does not apply to all, and rarely
to the heads of these departments, I rejoice to admit; but still those heads of
departments are responsible for all the acts of their subordinate agents, and should
exercise a vigilant superintendence, impartially punishing any, the least, infringement of
their regulations. No man should be connected with the Indian department who is
directly or indirectly interested in trade with the Indians.
“In the summer of the year 1763, some friendly Indians from a distant place, came to
Bethlehem to dispose of their peltry for manufactured goods and necessary implements
of husbandry. Returning home well satisfied, they put up the first night at a tavern, eight
miles distant. * The landlord not being at home, his wife took the liberty of encouraging
the people who frequented her house for the sake of drinking, to abuse those Indians,
adding, that she would freely give a gallon of rum to any one of them that should kill one
of those black devils. Other white people from the neighborhood came in during the
night, who also drank freely, made a great deal of noise, and increased the fears of
those poor Indians, who, for the greatest part, understanding English, could not but
suspect that something bad was intended against their persons. They were not,
however, otherwise disturbed ; but in the morning, when, after a restless night they were
preparing to set off, they found themselves robbed of some of the most valuable articles

they had purchased, and on mentioning this to a man who appeared to be the bar-
keeper, they were ordered to leave the house. Not being willing to lose so much

property, they retired to some distance into the woods, where, some of them remaining
with what was left them, the others returned to Bethlehem and lodged their complaint
with a justice of the peace. The magistrate gave them a letter to the landlord, pressing
him without delay to restore to the Indians the goods that had been taken from them.
But behold! when they delivered that letter to the people at the inn they were told in
answer, that if they set any value on their lives, they must make off with themselves
immediately. They well understood that they had no other alternative, and prudently
departed without having received back any of their goods. Arrived at Nescopeck on
the Susquehannah, they fell in with some other Delawares, who had been treated much
in the same manner, one of them having had his rifle stolen from him. Here the two
parties agreed to take revenge in their own way, for those insults and robberies for
which they could obtain no redress ; and that they determined to do as soon as war
should be again declared by their nation against the English.

 

Scarcely had these Indians retired, when in another place, about fourteen miles distant
from the former, one man, two women and a child, all quiet Indians, were murdered in a
most wicked and barbarous manner, by drunken militia officers and their men, for the
purpose of getting their horse and the goods they had just purchased. One of the
women, falling on her knees, begged in vain for the life of herself and her child, while
the other woman seeing what was doing, made her escape to the barn, where she
endeavoured to hide herself on the top of the grain. She however was discovered, and
inhumanly thrown down on the thrashing floor with such force that her brains flew out.
Here, then, were insults, robberies and murders, all committed within the short space of
three months, unatoned for and unrevenged. There was no prospect of obtaining
redress; the survivors were therefore obliged to seek some other means to obtain
revenge. They did so; the Indians, already exasperated against the English in
consequence of repeated outrages, and considering the nation as responsible for the
injuries which it did neither prevent nor punish, and for which it did not even after to
make any kind of reparation, at last declared war, and then the injured parties were at
liberty to redress themselves for the wrongs they had suffered. They immediately
started against the objects of their hatred, and finding their way unseen and
undiscovered, to the inn which had been the scene of the first outrage, they attacked it
at day-break, fired into it on the people within who were lying on their beds. Strange to
relate the murderers of the man, two women, and child, were among them. They
were mortally wounded, and died of their wounds shortly afterwards. The Indians, after
leaving this house, murdered by accident an innocent family, having mistaken the house
that they meant to attack, after which they returned to their homes.
Now a violent hue and cry was raised against the Indians—no language was too bad,
no crimes too black to brand them with. No faith was to be placed in those savages;
treaties with them were of no effect; they ought to be cut off from the face of the
earth! Such was the language at that time in every body’s mouth; the newspapers were
filled with accounts of the cruelties of the Indians; a variety of false reports were
circulated m order to rouse the people against them; while they, the really injured
party, having no printing presses among them, could not make known the story of their
grievances.
No faith can be placed in what the Indians promise at treaties; for scarcely is a treaty
concluded than they are again murdering us.’ Such is our complaint against these
unfortunate people; but they will tell you that it is the white men in whom no faith
is to be placed. They will tell you, that there is not a single instance in which the whites
have not violated the engagements that they had made at treaties. They say that when
they had ceded lands to the white people, and boundary lines had been established,
firmly established!’ beyond which no whites were to settle; scarcely was the treaty
signed, when white intruders again were settling and hunting on their lands! It is true
that when they preferred their complaints to the government, the government gave
them many fair promises and assured them that men would be sent to remove the
intruders by force from the usurped lands. The men, indeed, came, but with

chain and compass in their hands, taking surveys of the tracts of good land, which the
intruders, from their knowledge of the country, had pointed out to them!

 

Thank You for joining the American Indigenous Class with Treaties be sure to Check out the International Class and the Private NFT class on Land Patents and Estates 

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